The reason why I wrote this article is because of a Hong Kong stuntman named Vincent Kwok Wing-Sing. After his film career ended in 1974, he was not seen again by Kung Fu movie fans until he was interviewed by Toby Russell. Vincent was interviewed alongside two stuntman brothers: Peter Chan Lung and Billy Chan Wui-Ngai. Vincent was then interviewed for a 2004 documentary titled Dragon Since 1973. In both instances, he wore glasses. I don’t usually see retired H.K. stuntmen wear glasses. His life after Al Adamson’s The Dynamite Brothers (1974) is a mystery. We don’t even know the series of events that led to his H.K. film career, which signalled the beginning and end of Bruce Lee’s comeback to H.K. cinema. Vincent’s first movie was Bruce’s second martial arts movie, Fist of Fury (1972) whereas he appeared in Bruce’s final overall movie, Enter the Dragon (1973). We can’t say that Vincent was too saddened by Bruce’s death to continue doing movies unless he was blackmailed into appearing in The Dynamite Brothers.
The August 6, 1973 issue of Box Office Magazine reported that it began filming on that day (a Monday). Bruce died on July 20, had a major funeral in H.K. on July 25 where stuntmen acted as security guards, and his corpse was transported to Seattle in time for the final funeral on July 30. Not only did Vincent have no problem moving on quickly but neither did most of the core members in Bruce’s stunt team: Peter Chan, Billy Chan and Lam Ching-Ying. Yuen Wah, Bruce’s only stunt double, didn’t appear in The Dynamite Brothers. Perhaps he was too offended. The star, Alan Tang Kwon-Wing, is a gangster whose father was also a gangster. One of Alan’s mentors is Lau Wing-Kui, who formed the Tung Lok Triad in the 1940s. Their power was enabled by a corrupt police inspector named Lui Lok whose boss was Lau’s uncle: Lau Fook. Alan’s nickname was Prince of the Underworld. Actor Eric Tsang had Triad privilege because his father, Tsang Kai-Wing, collected money for Lui Lok. Kai-Wing served in the H.K. police force from 1940 to 1972. After Lui retired in 1973, Kai-Wing had fled to Taiwan.
Tomorrow will be the 49th anniversary of when Enter the Dragon was released in U.S. cinemas. In Chapter One of his underrated 1988 biography, director Robert Clouse deftly addressed the issue of Bruce being murdered by the Triads (the Chinese mafia who are known formerly and formally as the Three Harmonies Association). Robert establishes that a school teacher had a story about Bruce getting into trouble with them, but then Robert gives a minor history lesson as to what the Triads are all about. In this context, Clouse didn’t have to bring up their involvement in the film industry (such as collecting fees from extras), but Clouse did so because it was a way to help put into perspective what was previously established about Bruce as an underage actor and what he would be coming up against in his thirties. Repetition in storytelling can be crucial because it helps to draw attention to a seemingly minor detail. In Chapter One, Clouse mentions that the Triads control most of the stuntmen. In Chapter Thirteen, he mentions that the stuntmen belonged to the Triads.
Any other storyteller would have just had that info stated in the later chapter, especially since Bruce didn’t work with stuntmen when he was a kid. However, Clouse immediately follows the Chapter One inclusion by stating that one of the rumours about Bruce’s death is that he was killed by the Triads for an “obscure and ill-defined” reason. He then follows this up by mentioning that a person who is inducted into the Triads is sworn a blood oath where death will befall them if they break their word. In Chapter Thirteen, Clouse mentions that Bruce’s stuntmen were loyal to him and protective of him. He would even give some of them loans. It’s especially indicative of Clouse’s intention that he never addresses the Triad killing in Chapter Eighteen, which is titled Who Killed Him?, but he carefully lets you know that he’s aware of the situation. He goes out of his way to use bold font to drop a hint as he typed: “Is it possible that Bruce was murdered, as so many claimed at the time and still believe? The answer, based on everything which can be learned to date, is yes.”
Back to Vincent Kwok, he can be seen in the documentary that was immediately filmed after Bruce’s death: Golden Harvest’s Bruce Lee: The Man and the Legend. In the above lobby card depicting Bruce’s Hong Kong funeral, he is on the far right. On the far left is actor Kenneth Tsang. The central figure is actress Nancy Kwan. After Bruce died, his widow Linda realized that it would be pointless to move his Marcy Circuit Trainer machine back to California, so she donated it to La Salle College in Kowloon. She could have donated it to Golden Harvest so that they can train their stuntmen and martial arts actors instead of a Catholic secondary school that Bruce was expelled from. Even more ironic is that February 28, 1973 was when he showed up at Saint Francis Xavier College to present the Sports Day prizes. I think that Linda chose La Salle because Brother Henry Pang had once helped a 14-year-old Bruce escape Triads who wanted to decimate him for picking a fight with the son of a Triad chief.
Bruce ordered the exercise machine in November 1972 when he was in America with Golden Harvest’s founder, Raymond Chow. They went to sign the Warner Brothers deal to co-produce Bruce’s first American movie. While in America, Bruce wrote a letter to regular co-star Unicorn Chan where he told him that music made Bruce realize that rhythm is the source of martial arts, martial arts films and life. The three elements become one and they inspire one another. On November 22 in Hong Kong, Bruce wrote a letter to Bob Baker where he disclosed that he might consider no longer doing business with Chow since he lacks the right dedication. There is something that Jackie Chan and Anders Nelsson have said about how Bruce might have blurred the line between who he was on both sides of the camera. Bruce tricked himself into thinking he was superhuman. While he proved the American doctors wrong in 1970 about a sex-inflicted back injury preventing him from being able to kick again, Bruce couldn’t really prove them wrong in 1973 about not being able to take drugs again.
In terms of drug-addicted Kung Fu stars, Donnie Yen was the next reported one to indulge in cocaine. In terms of sex, Li Yi-Min was the next such star to engage in philandering. Robert Tai told Toby Russell about getting into fights on Li’s behalf because he loved to sleep with other men’s wives. In a 2001 BBC documentary called I Love Kung Fu, producer Fred Weintraub claimed that Bruce was a womanizer “to a degree” when the subject of his death came up. Robert Clouse alluded to knowing about Bruce’s drug problem and sex addiction in the most subtlest of ways. In his biography’s foreword, he wrote: “My perceptions of Lee were dented and bent from what I knew about him; others were destroyed. There are individuals who have a particular axe to grind, or wish to bury an episode that might prove embarrassing, or someone who feels protective of a public image. Piecing together the portrait is imprecise, but the attempt goes on.”
Linda Lee has always been protective of his image. They married on August 17, 1964, and their marriage ended when he was declared dead on July 20, 1973. That they were together for almost nine years is fascinating because they lived in an area of Hong Kong called Kowloon Tong, which means nine dragons pond. There are eight mountains that serve as a natural border between the Kowloon area and the New Territories. Emperor Shao Bing was the ninth mountain because he was the ninth emperor of China. The September 1973 issue of Black Belt revealed that the release date of Enter the Dragon was originally scheduled to be August 15. For his book about the making of the film, Robert Clouse interviewed Bolo Yeung. Don’t let the book fool you, Rob couldn’t have been unaware about Bruce’s plan to poach twenty stuntmen since Bolo was one of them. Bolo revealed in the February 1990 issue of Black Belt that arrangements had been made but they fell through when Bruce died.
The other stuntmen were Jackie Chan, Yuen Biao, Peter Chan, Billy Chan, Lam Ching-Ying, Yuen Wah, Vincent Kwok, Mars Cheung Wing-Fat, Phillip Ko Fei, Cheung Wing-Hon, Lee King-Chu, Robert Chan Law-Bat, Steve Lee Ka-Ting, Zebra Pan Yung-Sheng, Wilson Tong, Chung Fat, Ng Ming-Choi, Brandy Yuen Jan-Yeung and Wu Ngan (a.k.a. Ngan Jai i.e. Ngan kid). Triad boss Alan Tang knew about this plan. The Dynamite Brothers features six of these men: Peter, Billy, Lam, Vincent, Mars and Lee King-Chu. Robert Chan is worth singling out from Bruce’s long list of stuntmen because, like Wu Ngan, he was a childhood friend whose film career began with Bruce but didn’t end after his death. There’s a scene in The Dynamite Brothers that takes place in a graveyard where the tombstone in the centre gets the attention because of the inscribed name: Lee Lung On. Bruce’s Chinese name was Lee Siu-Lung i.e. plum little dragon. One of Bruce’s childhood friends had a similar name: Siu Kei-Lun, which means little unicorn. He’s also known as Unicorn Chan because Chan Ling-Chung is one of his alternate names since there are so many dialects in the Chinese language.
Unicorn was in five films with Alan Tang, most notably Love and Blood (1972) and Back Street (1973). These featured a gangster named Michael Chan Wai-Man. While Alan was a decent martial artist, Michael was a professional fighter who won the Southeast Asia Fighting Championship for two consecutive years (1970 and 1971). Michael was a friend of Unicorn, whose failure to become a movie star was bound to result in journalists saying that Little Unicorn is smaller than Little Dragon. Michael became a Triad at 17, but his ascent to gang leader status began with a stretch in prison as a correctional officer. He helped so many convicts that they owed him favours. After two years and eight months, he became a policeman. After four years, he was fired when his superiors found out about his Triad lifestyle. Michael then became an actor at the age of 25. His first film was Love and Blood. It was released two days after his 26th birthday. Being kicked off the force didn’t make him any less untouchable as a criminal. In an interview, he said: “Back then, you couldn’t call the police. Because when I collected your protection fee, the police get a cut too.”
From left to right, that’s Chieh Yuen (who was in Bruce’s The Game of Death), Michael, Chen Sing, San Kuai, Bolo Yeung and Fong Yau. Chen Sing stands out because he had more star power. After Bruce died, Chen appeared in a film called Black Panther. Released in late September of 1973, the film is significant because Bruce had been in talks to make a film with a similar title. In early July, director Walter Chung Chang-Hwa had completed a script called Big Battle with the Black Panther. Bruce was very satisfied with it, but his death stopped him from making the movie. Twenty years later, Alan Tang starred in a film called The Black Panther Warriors. Chen Sing’s 1973 movie is notable for how it inspired a scene in Police Story (1985) where Jackie Chan escapes from a police station by taking a superintendent hostage. There’s even a scene in Black Panther which inspired Police Story Part II (1988) by having Jackie cornered in an alley by a car before he turns around to kick the windshield.
The three worlds of Triads, film and police really came into full force when Jackie made Police Story. Jackie had been working for the Golden Harvest film company for half a decade by the time that he started his company – Golden Way. This was a subsidiary of Golden Harvest in the same way that Bruce’s Concord was. Perhaps Jackie knew that he could be guaranteed protection from Triads if he became a poster boy for the police. It certainly worked for an actor named Danny Lee, who played Bruce in a Shaw Brothers biopic called Bruce Lee and I. Golden Harvest founder Raymond Chow had a connection to the police in the form of a voice actor named Ted Thomas. From Chow’s perspective, Ted could be used as a spy since he was moonlighting as a dubbing artist for G.H. and S.B. On the night that Bruce died, Ted was having dinner with the commissioner of the Hong Kong police. According to his LinkedIn page, Ted was the director of public relations for the H.K. police from March 1971 to June 1973.
Ted’s departure is suspicious because early June was when Chief Superintendent Peter Godber retired after the anti-corruption branch wanted to know how he accumulated so much money in his bank account. Peter also served as Deputy District Commander of Kowloon. He left H.K. on June 8 – the day before Bruce returned from the U.S. where he went to receive intensive medical analysis after deadly cannabis intoxication. Here is another example of suspicious timing – Sergeant Lui Lok retired from the police in the period between Bruce’s death in July and October when H.K. Governor Murray MacLehose made a proposal for there to be an independent commission against corruption. The inquest into Bruce’s death happened in September, and the Independent Commission Against Corruption was formed in February 1974. The below man is Lee Ka-Ting. He confirmed that Bruce was going to take some of the finest H.K. stuntmen with him for his Hollywood career. Lee Ka-Ting was looking forward to it so much that he not only purchased a house in America, but he came up with an anglicized name for himself: Steve Lee.
He was part of the same social circle that Bolo Yeung belonged to. During the making of Enter the Dragon, Bolo spoke of a martial artist named Lau Tai-Chuen: “This fellow was the Asian boxing champion and had loudly protested Bruce Lee’s status in the martial arts world. Bruce ignored the comments for months but eventually decided enough was enough. He contacted a police chief and said, I will fight this guy if you can guarantee me that nobody else will know about it because I don’t want to give this guy publicity. Otherwise, this will never stop. The police chief agreed. Bruce and this other martial artist were contacted as to the time and place. The whole bout lasted less than 30 seconds. Bruce then pulled out his check book and wrote a check out in the fallen boxer’s name in order to pay the hospital expenses necessary to stitch the man back up. Apparently, the police chief didn’t keep the secret very private and soon word of Bruce Lee’s encounter reached me while I was on the set. I asked Bruce if the encounter was true. Bruce nodded grimly in the affirmative and told me, Keep it to yourself.”
Lau Tai-Chuen didn’t have much of a film career i.e. four movies from 1972 to 1974. Half of those movies, The Thunder Kick and Bloody Ring, were 1973 productions starring a Karateka who trained the police: Larry Lee Gam-Kwan. If word of Bruce’s challenge match had reached Bolo then it was bound to have reached the ears of Bolo’s ex-cop buddy, Michael Chan. A journalist named To Wai-Tun said: “In the colonial era of Hong Kong, the power of the police was very great. The detective of the plain-clothes police is called Deng Sheng (鄧生). He has another title, that is the chairman of the Chinese Martial Arts Association in Hong Kong. He was very interested in what would happen if Lau Tai-Chuen’s Western boxing went against Bruce Lee’s Jeet Kune Do. Because he has a lot of power, and he is also a friend of Bruce, he said to him – Lau Tai-Chuen wants to challenge you, how about a secret fight? Bruce said it’s okay but don’t make it public. So the two fighters fought one match at a secret location in the New Territories.”
Police instructor Larry Lee had personally witnessed Bruce’s televised martial arts demonstration in Hong Kong circa 1970. This was when Bruce tried to get a deal with Shaw Brothers before he signed with Golden Harvest in July 1971. Larry’s interest in witnessing Bruce’s power in person is suspect. I suspect that Larry was called upon by the police to see if Bruce was up to his own tricks since he left H.K. as a teenager under incriminating circumstances. In 1959, teenage Bruce was told that staying in H.K. would result in him being slaughtered by vengeful Triads or being arrested if he got into any more fights. Bloody Ring was Larry’s second movie but Vincent Kwok’s third and final H.K. movie. This is why it’s possible that Vincent (in the middle of the above photo) could have been an undercover cop whose job was to spy on Bruce and find out which stuntmen were Triads. This makes sense since Vincent couldn’t be a spy during the making of The Big Boss (1971) because that was made in Thailand, so his very presence would have raised alarm bells.
Fist of Fury was not only made in H.K. but Bruce was coming hot off the record-breaking success of The Big Boss, so Vincent would have blended in with the many stuntmen hoping to get their literal 15 seconds of glory. No red flags. The Way of the Dragon (1972) took place in Italy, so there wasn’t much room for casting. Even with the limited Chinese roles on offer, Bruce chose to cast people who were either famous or friends. As for The Game of Death (1972), Bruce filmed footage that was intended to be shown in a projector reel during one of the scenes. In the footage, the below stuntmen are used as crash test dummies to display different masters of martial arts. From left to right in the below photo that was taken in Hong Kong’s New Territories, that’s Billy Chan, Yuen Wah, Bruce, Lam Ching-Ying and Wu Ngan (Bruce’s butler filling in for Peter Chan). Bruce intended to film a scene with twenty stuntmen outside a South Korean pagoda. The idea was to poach the stuntmen in transit without anyone in H.K. being any the wiser. Co-star Kareem Abdul-Jabbar was going to visit Bruce in H.K. on July 21, 1973 for a reason that he has never stated. Maybe he was part of Bruce’s smokescreen.
Jackie Chan did something similar during post-production of The Young Master in November 1979. Things got so tense with the Triads that he had to edit the movie in America but only after tricking them into thinking he was visiting his parents in Australia. This was during pre-production of Robert Clouse’s Battle Creek Brawl. If Jackie died then maybe Clouse would have written a book about him too! All kidding aside, it’s weird that some film critics give director Al Adamson credit for hiring the Chinese stuntmen who worked on The Dynamite Brothers. That’s like giving Clouse credit for Jackie bringing over two of his stunt guys for what became known as The Big Brawl. Coincidentally, one of the stuntmen who Jackie brought over had worked on The Dynamite Brothers – Bruce Tong. If Adamson was that perceptive, he would have known that he was working with some of Bruce Lee’s stunt guys. We would have got behind-the-scenes footage and more production photos.
Back to Vincent Kwok, he didn’t get to do many movies in 1972 because of an injury that he received during the making of The Good and the Bad. This was the second H.K. movie that he did during his stint as a stuntman. Yasuaki Kurata was the co-star. It starred Chen Sing, and it featured Chieh Yuen before he began work on Bruce’s The Game of Death circa September 1972. This is what Vincent said about his injury: “I injured my wrist on a job in Macao which Bruce didn’t know about. I returned to Hong Kong and met up with Bruce and the stunt guys for dim sum. In the elevator, he noticed my wrist and asked why it was wrapped. I told him it was a stunt gone wrong on a movie set. It was quite serious – broke a bone. Even though he had nothing to do with it, he immediately gave me $500. So I feel Bruce really takes good care of his friends, his brothers.”
Yasuaki Kurata belonged to the same social circle as Bolo, Chen Sing, Michael Chan and Steve Lee. He can be seen alongside Bruce in BTS photos and footage of Unicorn Chan’s Fist of Unicorn. The common denominator in this social circle is a H.K. movie mogul named Ng See-Yuen. He was a producer, director and writer who used to work for Shaw Brothers until they refused to give Bruce what he wanted. Unicorn was the one who tried to help Bruce get signed to Shaw. Looking at the below screenshot of Vincent Kwok in Ng See-Yuen’s The Good and the Bad (1972), I can see why Bruce wanted him. Not only could he ride a bicycle, but he could get off it with style. Bruce knew how to ride a bicycle, as can be seen during the making of The Green Hornet. The Good and the Bad featured a stuntman who went on to be a martial arts movie star in his own right: Bruce Leung Siu-Lung. He met the leading lady for the first time and went on to date her. They married in 1975.
Her name is Irene Ryder, and she previously auditioned to be in a movie with the other Bruce. She would have been better in The Way of the Dragon than Nora Miao since Irene’s Eurasian identity fits in more with the Italian setting. Dating the less famous Bruce resulted in her career being ruined. What happened was that some thugs threw acid on Irene’s face in January 1979. As such, she retired from films. Leung pulverized those responsible. Irene still does the odd guest slot on TV and concerts, though. Leung studied Gōjū-ryū Karate from police instructor Larry Lee, and they did four films together from 1977 to 1978. After their final film together, Larry quit being an actor. By comparison, Leung did ten films with his classmate: Lee Fat-Yuen (one of Hong Kong’s most prolific stuntmen). In 1968, Carter Wong became the chief Karate instructor to the H.K. police. The superintendent introduced him to a director friend of his who worked at Golden Harvest: Huang Feng.
The below photo depicts the H.K. version of Hollywood’s Rat Pack: the Silver Rats. Starting with the guy at the top right: we have Alan Tang, who has his right hand on the shoulder of Willie Chan Chi-Keung. In front of them are two people who had their photos taken with Bruce Lee – Patrick Tse Yin (a gangster) and Lydia Shum Tin-Ha. Next to Patrick is Paul Chang Chung. Seated next to Paul is Charlie Chin Chiang-Lin, and behind Charlie is Steve Chan Ho. Their equivalent to the fifth Beatle was Tina Chin Fei, who also had her photo taken with Bruce (this was during the press conference for Fist of Unicorn). One of the reasons why Sammo Hung’s My Lucky Stars became the highest-grossing H.K. film in 1985 was because of the connections to the Silver Rats. Willie was the manager of Jackie Chan (who has a small role), Paul played the main bad guy, and Charlie played one of the good guys.
Tellingly, in spite of the wide range of films that Jackie worked on in the seventies, he never worked on an Alan Tang movie. Believe me, that’s saying something. There was an interview that Jackie did for a 1980 issue of Kung Fu Monthly where he mentioned that he had worked on a hundred films by the age of 26. He turned that age on April 7, 1980. In April 1979, Golden Harvest’s Raymond Chow could have cared less about the death of Bruce after successfully poaching Jackie from Lo Wei’s company, and Yuen Woo-Ping from Ng See-Yuen’s company. The owner of Shaw Brothers, Run Run Shaw, remarked that Chow knew more about poaching talent than creating it. Chow poached Shaw star Michael Hui in 1974. On the topic of poaching, I don’t think that Bruce would have wanted Sammo Hung to be one of his 20 stuntmen. Bruce announced his decision to poach during the 1972 filming of The Game of Death. Sammo turned this film down because he was supposedly busy working on another film despite Bruce telling him 8 months before filming began.
Sammo had been in Korea for one month by the time that Bruce got down to filming his pet project. They fell out, and Bruce didn’t bother casting him in Enter the Dragon until the film was in the can. After the Americans went home, Bruce decided that the film needed a stronger opening. Or so the official story goes. The reality was that, in early April 1973, John Saxon wanted to reshoot his own opening fight scene upon seeing the high quality of every other fight. By filming a sparring match with Sammo, Bruce would come out on top. Also, he intended the fight to be a passing of the torch in terms of who leads the following stunt guys hereafter: Peter Chan, Billy Chan, Lam Ching-Ying and Yuen Wah. During the first two weeks of April, Bruce shot extra footage of himself and Shek Kin in the mirror labyrinth. These were pick-up shots that helped elevate the finale, according to a Golden Harvest executive named Andre Morgan.
By mid-April, Sammo was leading the aforementioned quartet on a film that was being shot in Bangkok. This was Larry Lee’s Bloody Ring. Besides having fallen out with Bruce, Sammo couldn’t leave Larry’s movie because being a fight director is like being the only director when you’re working on a film where the main director prefers to be lazy. Reasoning and money prevailed, so Sammo gave Bruce two days to shoot their fight. They reconciled after much discussion. Yuen Wah went with Sammo to H.K. because Bruce needed him to be his acrobatic double. According to an interview in a 1990 issue of Martial Arts Illustrated, Sammo returned to H.K. two months later where he saw Bruce again. This would have been in the second week of June when Bruce returned from the United States following his medical retreat. But still, Sammo never said anything about Bruce wanting him to join him for a Stateside coup.
Bruce’s death in July resulted in Sammo inheriting the quartet of stuntmen (Peter, Billy, Lam and Yuen). According to Bey Logan’s 2018 book, Bruce Lee and I, Wu Ngan (Bruce’s butler) called Sammo to inform him that Bruce had died. Wu’s final H.K. movie, George Lazenby’s Stoner, began filming in the winter of 1973. Sammo acted in it and choreographed the fights. Alan Tang being allowed to temporarily borrow three of Sammo’s stuntmen for his U.S. summer trip suggests that there are powers that be who are far greater than a heavy honcho like Sammo or a hefty fellow like Bolo. Ironically, Sammo wasn’t hired to choreograph The Dynamite Brothers. The less experienced Lam Ching-Ying was the chosen one. Vincent Kwok, Mars and Lee King-Chu appeared in Bloody Ring before they worked on The Dynamite Brothers. Perhaps Sammo didn’t come along with them to the States because he lacked a Visa. Like Jackie, Sammo never worked with Alan Tang.
Bloody Ring was an attempt to make Larry Lee the next Bruce. Larry’s hairstyle is similar. He does three consecutive kicks with the same leg. He wears a striped tracksuit whose colour matches his nunchaku like Bruce in The Game of Death, albeit red instead of yellow (although Dan Inosanto fought with a red nunchaku in The Game of Death). There’s a projector reel scene like in Enter the Dragon, and the setting is Thailand like The Big Boss. Character actor Li Kun even has a similar comic relief role to the one that he had in the latter. Bloody Ring wasn’t a Golden Harvest movie but Bruce would have learned about the movie sooner or later, with or without the help of magazines. The company behind the movie was called Far East. Their final three movies were Larry Lee movies directed by Teddy Yip: The Thunder Kick (1973), Bloody Ring (1973) and The Chinese Tiger (1974).
Back to the possibility of Vincent Kwok as a policeman going undercover as a stuntman, Fist of Fury is notable for featuring a police instructor named Fung Ngai. He was a half-Chinese and half-Japanese Judo master who was brought up in Japan. When Fung came to H.K. in late 1957, he taught Judo at a place where he was living: the Waterloo Road YMCA. Besides teaching police, he taught regular people including Bruce. In the `70s, Fung was a regular actor for both Golden Harvest and Shaw Brothers. His final film was a crime drama called New York Chinatown (1982). It was easy for him to be cast in this H.K. film because he was already living in New York where he taught Judo to the police. The film starred Alan Tang, and was produced by his company. Karate instructor Carter Wong moved to America in 1982, and began to teach the NYPD in 1984.